Tag Archives: Linux

Running Legacy Windows Programs on Linux with WINE

I have a few really old Windows programs from the Windows 95 era that I never ended up replacing. Nowadays, these are really hard to run on Windows 10. Ironically, it is quite easy to run them on Linux, thanks to WINE:

“Wine (originally an acronym for “Wine Is Not an Emulator”) is a compatibility layer capable of running Windows applications on several POSIX-compliant operating systems, such as Linux, macOS, & BSD. Instead of simulating internal Windows logic like a virtual machine or emulator, Wine translates Windows API calls into POSIX calls on-the-fly, eliminating the performance and memory penalties of other methods and allowing you to cleanly integrate Windows applications into your desktop.”

One such program is this Family Tree software that came with the July 2001 issue of PC Format magazine.

To run this, we first need to install WINE, which on Ubuntu (or similar) would work something like this:

sudo apt-get install wine

After popping in the PC Format CD containing the software, simply locate the autorun executable. Then run the wine command, passing this executable (in this case PCF124.exe) as an argument:

After inserting the CD, locate the autorun executable, and run it using WINE. Although it’s a Windows program, it works just fine.

Selecting Family Tree 2 from the menu runs the corresponding installer. Although this expects a Windows-like filesystem and writes to a Windows registry, WINE has no problem mapping these out.

Select the install location on what looks like a Windows filesystem.
Doesn’t this make you feel nostalgic?

When this finishes, the program is actually installed, and can be found and run from the application menu of whatever desktop environment you’re using (in my case, Plasma by KDE):

Running Family Tree 2.0, we get an error that says “Please install default printer”.

For some bizarre reason, this particular family tree software requires a printer to be installed, and will not work without one. While you probably won’t have this problem, for me it was a tough one that left me wondering for a while. I managed to solve it only by asking for help on Ask Ubuntu and getting an extremely insightful answer:

“When you install printer-driver-cups-pdf (or cups-pdf for Ubuntu 15.10 and earlier) a PDF printer is added which saves the printed files in ~/PDF/. All the printers installed in your Ubuntu OS also work from WINE, you don’t need to do anything about it.
But:
“If you just normally installed CUPS on your 64-bit Ubuntu (uname -r gives x86_64 if it is 64-bit), this won’t work when you run a 32-bit software like yours from 1995 presumably is. The solution in this case is to install the 32-bit CUPS library, so that 32-bit WINE is also able to find your printers:”

sudo apt install libcups2:i386

Sure enough, that worked when I did this on a virtual machine on another laptop, but not on this one. This time, I simply needed to install cups-pdf, because the CPU architecture is different.

Family Tree 2.0 is running on Linux Kubuntu 19.10, thanks to WINE.

As you can see, this Windows-95-era piece of software is now working flawlessly on Linux. Once this is done, don’t forget to eject the CD (the eject command in the terminal has been a fun discovery for me) to unmount it from the filesystem. If you need to uninstall a Windows program you installed via WINE, you can do so directly from your desktop environment’s application menu. And if you need go deeper, WINE’s filesystem is located in the hidden .wine directory under your home folder.

The State of Drag and Drop in Linux

A few months ago, looking for a replacement for Windows (which always finds new ways to get on my nerves), I spent a couple of weeks playing with Linux Mint with MATE desktop. During this test drive, one of the annoyances I came across was the inability to drag a URL from Chromium’s address bar to create a link on the desktop. I literally ended up asking for help, and still didn’t figure it out.

Creating a URL shortcut on a Windows 10 desktop by dragging the padlock icon in Chrome

In Windows, this is something I’ve been doing for many, many years. It’s not rocket science. You drag the padlock icon next to the address bar onto your desktop and a shortcut is created, pointing to that URL.

Ubuntu 19.10

Since Ubuntu 19.10 was released a week and a half ago, I thought I’d try it out. The first thing I figured I’d make sure was that I could drag and drop links to the desktop. Ubuntu is one of the most popular and mature operating systems around. Surely they’d support such a basic usability feature, right?

Ubuntu 19.10 doesn’t let you drag links to the desktop.

Well, it turns out that dragging links from default browser Firefox to the desktop has no effect whatsoever. Odd, isn’t it? Let’s try dragging that link to some other folder instead.

We try dragging a link from Firefox to the Documents folder
“Drag and drop is not supported. An invalid drag type was used.”

That’s annoying. I mean, drag and drop is a really basic feature that has been around forever. Let’s try dragging a file from one folder to another… obviously that’s going to work, no?

It looks like it’s going to work, but it doesn’t.

As you drag the file, a little plus icon appears beneath the hand as if to tell you that something’s going to happen. Alas, however, this also has no effect.

And of course, dragging the file to the desktop similarly does not work:

Dragging the file to the desktop has no effect

So we can’t drag links from Firefox, and we can’t drag and drop files. Maybe we’ll have better luck with Chromium?

We try dragging a link from Chromium into the Documents folder
Once again, we get that “Drag and drop is not supported” failure.

So it seems, like someone hinted in that original question about drag and drop in Linux Mint, that this has nothing to do with the browser and is something related to the desktop environment.

Once again, I had to swallow that feeling of incompetence and ask for help with this. Aside from the usual Stack Overflow treatment of getting my question closed as a duplicate, one of the comments led to other Q&As that uncovered a bitter truth: that drag and drop support was intentionally removed. Why would anyone in their right state of mind do that?

Kubuntu 19.10

Incredulous, I decided to try the KDE flavour of Ubuntu — Kubuntu. Drag and drop a link from browser to desktop? No problem:

We drag the padlock icon next to the address bar to the desktop
A context menu appears, asking what we want to do with the URL. “Link Here” creates the equivalent of a desktop shortcut in Windows.
An icon is created on the desktop, leading to the webpage we wanted to keep track of.

Was that really so hard? I get it, there were reasons why GNOME decided to do away with desktop icons and the like. But surely there are better ways to solve the problem than to do away with a basic and essential usability feature.

A desktop environment without basic drag and drop support in… almost 2020… is just garbage.

Setting Up Elasticsearch on Linux Ubuntu

Elasticsearch is a lightning-fast and highly scalable search engine built on top of Apache Lucene. In this article, we’re going to see how we can quickly set it up on an Ubuntu Linux environment (using Ubuntu 16.10 here) to be able to play around with it. We do not cover configuring Elasticsearch or setting up a cluster. To set up Elasticsearch on Windows, see “Setting Up Elasticsearch and Kibana on Windows” instead.

Before we can set up Elasticsearch itself, we need Java. We can follow these instructions to set up Java on Ubuntu. Before proceeding, verify that the JAVA_HOME environment variable is set:

echo $JAVA_HOME

It is likely that you won’t see anything as a result of this command. That’s because while the Java setup instructions do set this environment variable, it does not get applied to your current session. Try opening a new terminal window or reboot the machine, and chances are that your JAVA_HOME will be set correctly. If not, you may have to set JAVA_HOME manually.

Once Java is correctly set up (complete with the JAVA_HOME environment variable), we can proceed to set up Elasticsearch. By going to the Elasticsearch downloads page, we can download (among other things) the Debian package containing Elasticsearch:

We can now install the Debian package using dpkg. At the time of writing this article, the latest version of Elasticsearch is 5.4, so after opening a Terminal window based in the Downloads folder, we can use the following command to install Elasticsearch:

sudo dpkg -i elasticsearch-5.4.0.deb

Elasticsearch is now installed, but it is not yet running! So first, we’ll enable the Elasticsearch service so that it will start automatically when the machine is rebooted:

sudo systemctl enable elasticsearch.service

We can now start the Elasticsearch service.

sudo systemctl start elasticsearch.service

The Elasticsearch HTTP endpoint will need a few seconds before it is reachable. After that, we can verify that Elasticsearch is running either by going to localhost:9200 from a web browser, or by hitting that same endpoint using curl in the command line:

curl -X GET http://localhost:9200/

In either case, you should get a response with some JSON data about the Elasticsearch instance you’re running:

We are now all set up to play around with Elasticsearch! Since we didn’t configure anything, we have a single instance with all default settings. If you’re planning to use Elasticsearch in a production environment, you will of course want to read up on configuring it properly and setting up a cluster to ensure that it can handle the use cases you need and that it can survive failure scenarios.

Setting up .NET Core on Linux

One of the biggest promises of .NET Core is the long-awaited promise of true cross-platform development. In this article, we’ll see how we can set up .NET Core on some flavours of Linux, and ensure that it works by running a simple console application.

Introduction

In general, if you want to run .NET Core on Linux, you should do the following before even starting development, to make sure it actually works:

  1. Install .NET Core itself.
  2. Create a simple .NET project.
  3. Build and run the application.

The steps to install .NET Core vary depending on the distribution you are using. Different distributions use different package managers (e.g. APT, RPM, YUM, DNF, etc) so you will often need to either add a .NET package source to your package manager’s configuration, or download binaries for .NET Core from Microsoft, before you can proceed to actually install .NET Core.

Microsoft’s Getting Started with .NET Core documentation lists a handful of supported Linux distributions, each with their own installation instructions. Unfortunately, this is not yet updated with the latest versions of several popular distributions. In fact, I have not been able to set up .NET Core in Ubuntu 17.04 (Zesty Zapus), Fedora 25, or CentOS 7. So in this article, we’ll focus on Ubuntu 16.10 (Yakkety Yak) and Linux Mint 18.1.

Unfortunately, these two are both Debian flavours, and both use the Ubuntu package server, so there is not much in the way of variety here.  In any case, let’s proceed with the setup.

Installing .NET Core on Linux Ubuntu 16.10 (Yakkety Yak)

First, we need to follow the installation instructions in the documentation in order to add the .NET package source to APT’s package source configuration:

sudo sh -c 'echo "deb [arch=amd64] https://apt-mo.trafficmanager.net/repos/dotnet-release/ yakkety main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/dotnetdev.list'
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv-keys 417A0893
sudo apt-get update

Here’s what the output of most of this should look like:

With that done, we can install the .NET Core SDK:

sudo apt-get install dotnet-dev-1.0.1

Once the installation is complete, we can create and run a simple project. We can do this without writing any code ourselves, because the dotnet command provides means of generating project templates out of the box.

First, let’s create a directory for our application, and switch to it (note: the documentation provides an alternative way of doing this):

mkdir hello
cd hello

Then, we can create a simple “Hello World” console application in the current directory by running the following command:

dotnet new console

Then, with the following commands, we restore dependencies via NuGet, build the application, and run it:

dotnet restore
dotnet run

Here’s the output, so you can see that it actually worked:

Installing .NET Core on Linux Mint 18.1

The same documentation page with the instructions to install .NET Core on Ubuntu also covers Linux Mint 17. Unfortunately, this doesn’t work for Linux Mint 18. However, you’ll notice that Ubuntu 14.04 and Linux Mint 17 share the same setup instructions. And this Stack Overflow answer shows that Ubuntu 16.04 and Linux Mint 18 also use the same setup. Thus:

sudo sh -c 'echo "deb [arch=amd64] https://apt-mo.trafficmanager.net/repos/dotnet-release/ xenial main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/dotnetdev.list'

sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv-keys 417A0893

sudo apt-get update

Then, like before, we install the .NET Core SDK:

sudo apt-get install dotnet-dev-1.0.1

And then, we can actually test this out:

mkdir hello
cd hello
dotnet new console
dotnet restore
dotnet run

We get our “Hello World”, so it works!

Conclusion

We’ve seen how to set up .NET Core on the Ubuntu and Mint distributions of Linux, which are very similar. Different distributions have different setup instructions, and it would be a real pain to cover all of them. The official documentation does provide installation instructions for a handful of popular distributions, but they are slow to update documentation, and do not at this time cover the latest versions.

At least, however, this should be enough to get an idea of what it takes to set things up and run a simple application on Linux using .NET Core.

How to set up SDL2 on Linux

This article explains how to get started with SDL2 in Linux. For other SDL2 tutorials (including setting up on Windows), check out my SDL2 Tutorials at Programmer’s Ranch.

Using apt-get

If you’re on a Debian-based Linux distribution, you can use the APT package manager to easily install the SDL2 development libraries. From a terminal, install the libsdl2-dev package:

sudo apt-get install libsdl2-dev

Installing from source

If for whatever reason you can’t use a package manager, you’ll have to compile SDL2 from the source code. To do this, you first have to download SDL2:

sdl2linux-download

After extracting the archive to a folder, cd to that folder and run:

./configure

When it’s done, run:

make all

Finally, run:

sudo make install

Testing it out

To verify that you can compile an SDL2 program, use the following code (it’s the same used in my “SDL2: Setting up SDL2 in Visual Studio 2010” article at Programmer’s Ranch):

#include <SDL2/SDL.h>

int main(int argc, char ** argv)
{
    SDL_Init(SDL_INIT_EVERYTHING);
    SDL_Quit();

    return 0;
}

You can use vi or your favourite editor to create the source code:

sdl2linux-minimal

To compile this (assuming it’s called sdl2minimal.c), use the following command:

gcc sdl2minimal.c -lSDL2 -lSDL2main -o sdl2minimal

We need to link in the SDL2 libraries, which is why we add the -lSDL2 -lSDL2main. Be aware that those start with a lowercase L, not a 1. The program should compile. It won’t show you anything if you run it, but now you know that you’re all set up to write SDL2 programs on Linux.

sdl2linux-run