There are many aspects to web security, but in this article we’ll focus on one in particular. Attackers can use any available information about a target web application to their advantage. Therefore, if your web application is sending out headers revealing the underlying infrastructure of your web application, attackers can use those details to narrow down their attack and attempt to exploit vulnerabilities in that particular software.
Let’s create a new ASP .NET Core web application to see what is returned in the headers by default:
dotnet new web
This creates a “Hello world” ASP .NET Core application using the “ASP .NET Core Empty” template, and runs it. By default it runs on Kestrel on port 5000. If we access it in a browser and check the response headers (e.g. using the Network tab of the Chrome Developer Tools), we see that there’s this Server header with a value of Kestrel. If it were running under IIS, this value might have been MicrosoftIIS/10.0 instead.
Honestly, this could be worse. Older versions of ASP .NET running on the old .NET Framework used to add X-Powered-By, X-AspNet-Version and X-AspNet-MvcVersion headers with very specific information about the underlying software. While this information can be really useful for statistical purposes (e.g. to identify the most popular web servers, or to identify how prevalent different versions of ASP .NET are), they are also very useful for malicious purposes (e.g. to look for known vulnerabilities in a specific ASP .NET version).
ASP .NET Core, on the other hand, only adds the Server header, which is quite broad. However, the less information we give a potential attacker, the better for us.
There is no harm in removing the Server header, and to do this in ASP .NET Core, we can take a tip from this Stack Overflow answer:
The highlighted line above, added to Program.cs, has the effect of getting rid of that Server header. In fact, if we dotnet run again now, we find that it is gone:
Update 27th July 2020: Just to clarify, this removes the Server header coming from Kestrel. However, if you use other software (e.g. IIS) to host your web application, you will need to take additional steps to remove it from there as well.
It is always a good idea to do a vulnerability assessment of your web application, and in doing so, remove any excess information that complete strangers do not need to know. What we have seen here is a very small change that can reduce the security risk at least by a little.
Creating a Project
Like other web frontend libraries and frameworks, React requires npm. Therefore, the first thing to do is make sure you have Node.js installed, and if that is the case, then you should already have npm. You can use the following commands to check the version of each (making sure they are installed):
We can then use Create React App to create our React project. Simply run the following command in your terminal:
npx create-react-app my-first-react-app
This will download the latest version of create-react-app automatically if it’s not already available. It takes a couple of minutes to run, and at the end, you will have a directory called my-first-react-app with a basic React project template inside it.
The output at the end (shown above) tells you about the directory that was created, and gives you a few basic commands to get started. In fact, we’ll use the last of those to fire up our web application:
This will open a browser window or tab at the endpoint where the web application is running, which is localhost:3000 by default, and you should see the example page generated by Create React App, with a spinning React logo in it:
Open the project folder using your favourite text editor (e.g. Visual Studio Code), and you can see the project structure, as well as the App.js file which represents the current page:
With the web application still running, replace the highlighted line above (or any other you prefer) with “Hello world”. When you save, the running web application will automatically reload to reflect your changes:
And that’s all! As you can see, it’s quite easy (even if perhaps time-consuming) to create a React project. It’s also easy to run it, and since the project files are being watched, the running application is reloaded every time you save, making it very fast and efficient to make quick development iterations.
Transitioning from Windows to Linux is a pleasant experience, but not one for the faint-hearted. There are a lot of things that can take a while to learn: the different filesystem structure, new applications, and the terminal.
If you’ve been stuck with Windows for a long time, chances are that you are not going to switch to Linux entirely in one day and forget about Windows. You probably still want to access resources on that Windows machine, and that, for me, was one of the biggest hassles. Not because it is difficult, but because there are several steps along the way (on both the Windows and Linux sides), and it is really easy to miss one.
The commands in this article have been executed on Kubuntu, and are likely to work on any similar Debian-based distribution.
Let’s say you’re running an SVN server on your Windows machine, and you’d like to communicate with it from Linux. In order to find that Windows machine, you could try looking up its IP. However, home networks typically use DHCP, which means that a machine’s IP tends to change over time. So while using the IP could work right now, you will likely have to update your configuration again tomorrow.
You could allocate a static IP for this, but a much easier option is to simply look up the name of the machine instead of the IP. You can find out the machine’s name using the hostname command, which works on both Windows and Linux. Once we know the name of the Windows machine, we can try pinging it from Linux to see whether we can reach it:
daniel@orion:~$ ping windowspc
ping: windowspc: No address associated with hostname
That does not look very promising. Unfortunately, Linux machines can’t resolve Windows DNS out of the box. In order to get this working, we first need to install a couple of packages:
After that, we need to edit the /etc/nsswitch.conf file, which on a fresh Kubuntu installation would look something like this:
# Example configuration of GNU Name Service Switch functionality.
# If you have the `glibc-doc-reference' and `info' packages installed, try:
# `info libc "Name Service Switch"' for information about this file.
passwd: files systemd
group: files systemd
hosts: files mdns4_minimal [NOTFOUND=return] dns
protocols: db files
services: db files
ethers: db files
rpc: db files
hosts: files mdns4_minimal [NOTFOUND=return] dns wins mdns4
If you try pinging again, it should now work. No restart is necessary.
daniel@orion:~$ ping windowspc
PING windowspc (192.168.1.73) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.1.73 (192.168.1.73): icmp_seq=1 ttl=128 time=614 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.73 (192.168.1.73): icmp_seq=2 ttl=128 time=519 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.73 (192.168.1.73): icmp_seq=3 ttl=128 time=441 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.73 (192.168.1.73): icmp_seq=4 ttl=128 time=55.2 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.73 (192.168.1.73): icmp_seq=5 ttl=128 time=2.67 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.73 (192.168.1.73): icmp_seq=6 ttl=128 time=510 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.73 (192.168.1.73): icmp_seq=7 ttl=128 time=430 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.73 (192.168.1.73): icmp_seq=8 ttl=128 time=48.9 ms
--- windowspc ping statistics ---
9 packets transmitted, 8 received, 11.1111% packet loss, time 12630ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 2.671/327.520/613.590/232.503 ms
Resolving the hostname can sometimes take time. If you’re using a client application that can’t seem to resolve the Windows machine name, give it a few seconds, or try pinging it again. It should work after that.
Update 5th December 2019: If this doesn’t work, there are a couple of things I’ve seen recommended. One is to move the wins entry in /etc/nsswitch.conf to right after the files entry. Another is to try restarting the winbind service and see whether it makes a difference: sudo systemctl restart winbind.
Windows File Share
Another important aspect to interoperability between Windows and Linux is how to pass files between them. Fortunately, Linux comes with software called Samba that allows it to see and work with Windows file shares.
Before we do this, we need to create a shared folder on Windows. To do this, create a new folder (e.g. named share) on your Windows machine, then right click on it and select Properties. In the Sharing tab, there’s a button that says Advanced Sharing:
Click on it, and in the next modal window, check the box that says Share this folder. You can then OK all the way out without making further changes.
Through Kubuntu’s file manager application, called Dolphin, you can navigate to any Windows file shares visible on the network, even if you haven’t done the setup in the previous section.
To do this, select Network from the left, then double-click Shared Folders (SMB):
Next, select Workgroup:
You should now be able to see any Windows or Linux machines. Select the icon with the name of your Windows machine.
You should be prompted for credentials, and at that stage enter the same username and password that you use to login on Windows.
We can now see the shared folders on the Windows machine, including the shared folder we created earlier:
If, on the Windows side, we drop a file into that share folder, we can see it from Linux, and we are perfectly able to copy it over:
Unfortunately however, the same is not yet true in reverse. If we try to copy a file from the Linux machine into share, we get a lousy Access denied error:
It seems to be a permissions issue, so let’s go back on Windows and see what we might have missed. If we right click the folder and select Properties, we notice that the folder appears to be read-only:
This in fact has nothing to do with the problem, and attempting to change it has no effect.
Instead, what we need to do is go back to that Advanced Sharing modal window (via the Advanced Sharing button in the Properties’ Sharing tab). Click the Permissions button to see who has access to that folder. It seems like Everyone is listed but only has Read access. Please resist the temptation or other internet advice to give full access to Everyone, and instead look up the user you normally use to log into Windows:
You can then give your user full control:
You can now drop a file into the share folder from Linux without any problems:
Talking to a Windows machine from Linux is possible, but slightly tricky to set up.
In order for client applications on Linux to talk to server applications on Windows, install the winbind and libnss-winbind packages, and edit /etc/nsswitch.conf to enable DNS resolution for Windows machines. Use ping to verify that the hostname is beig resolved.
To share files between Windows and Linux, set up a shared folder on Windows. Add your Windows user to the list of people who can access the folder, giving it both read and write permissions. Then, from Linux, use the file manager application’s existing Samba integration to reach and work with the shared folder.
"You don't learn to walk by following rules. You learn by doing, and by falling over." — Richard Branson